STUDIES

Cheng Q, Chen J, Guo H, Lu JL, Zhou J, Guo XY, Shi Y, Zhang Y, Yu S, Zhang Q, Ding F. Pyrroloquinoline quinone promotes mitochondrial biogenesis in rotenone-induced Parkinson's disease model via AMPK activation. Acta Pharmacol Sin. 2021 May;42(5):665-678. doi: 10.1038/s41401-020-0487-2.
Source: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/32860006/

Chowanadisai W, Bauerly KA, Tchaparian E, Wong A, Cortopassi GA, Rucker RB. Pyrroloquinoline quinone stimulates mitochondrial biogenesis through cAMP response element-binding protein phosphorylation and increased PGC-1alpha expression. J Biol Chem. 2010 Jan 1;285(1):142-52. doi: 10.1074/jbc.M109.030130.
Source: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/19861415/

Cirilli I, Damiani E, Dludla PV, Hargreaves I, Marcheggiani F, Millichap LE, Orlando P, Silvestri S, Tiano L. Role of Coenzyme Q10 in Health and Disease: An Update on the Last 10 Years (2010-2020). Antioxidants (Basel). 2021 Aug 23;10(8):1325. doi: 10.3390/antiox10081325.
Source: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8389239/

Dieter F, Esselun C, Eckert GP. Redox Active α-Lipoic Acid Differentially Improves Mitochondrial Dysfunction in a Cellular Model of Alzheimer and Its Control Cells. Int J Mol Sci. 2022 Aug 16;23(16):9186. doi: 10.3390/ijms23169186.
Source: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9409376/

Gao Y, Kamogashira T, Fujimoto C, Iwasaki S, Yamasoba T. Author Correction: Pyrroloquinoline quinone (PQQ) protects mitochondrial function of HEI-OC1 cells under premature senescence. NPJ Aging. 2022 Oct 6;8(1):14. doi: 10.1038/s41514-022-00095-w.
Source: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/36202820/

Hofer SJ, Liang Y, Zimmermann A, Schroeder S, Dengjel J, Kroemer G, Eisenberg T, Sigrist SJ, Madeo F. Spermidine-induced hypusination preserves mitochondrial and cognitive function during aging. Autophagy. 2021 Aug;17(8):2037-2039. doi: 10.1080/15548627.2021.1933299.
Source: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/34105442/

Li X, Zhang C, Zhang X, Wang S, Meng Q, Wu S, Yang H, Xia Y, Chen R. An acetyl-L-carnitine switch on mitochondrial dysfunction and rescue in the metabolomics study on aluminum oxide nanoparticles. Part Fibre Toxicol. 2016 Jan 16;13:4. doi: 10.1186/s12989-016-0115-y.
Source: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/26772537/

Luo K, Yu JH, Quan Y, Shin YJ, Lee KE, Kim HL, Ko EJ, Chung BH, Lim SW, Yang CW. Therapeutic potential of coenzyme Q10 in mitochondrial dysfunction during tacrolimus-induced beta cell injury. Sci Rep. 2019 May 29;9(1):7995. doi: 10.1038/s41598-019-44475-x.
Source: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/31142763/

Rodick TC, Seibels DR, Babu JR, Huggins KW, Ren G, Mathews ST. Potential role of coenzyme Q10 in health and disease conditions. Nutrition and Dietary Supplements. 2018;10:1-11
https://doi.org/10.2147/NDS.S112119
Source: https://doi.org/10.2147/NDS.S112119

Shen W, Liu K, Tian C, Yang L, Li X, Ren J, Packer L, Cotman CW, Liu J. R-alpha-lipoic acid and acetyl-L-carnitine complementarily promote mitochondrial biogenesis in murine 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Diabetologia. 2008 Jan;51(1):165-74. doi: 10.1007/s00125-007-0852-4.
Source: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/18026715/

Solmonson A, DeBerardinis RJ. Lipoic acid metabolism and mitochondrial redox regulation. J Biol Chem. 2018 May 18;293(20):7522-7530. doi: 10.1074/jbc.TM117.000259.
Source: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5961061/

Traina G. The neurobiology of acetyl-L-carnitine. Front Biosci (Landmark Ed). 2016 Jun 1;21(7):1314-29. doi: 10.2741/4459.
Source: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/27100509/
Bressan P, Kramer P. Mental Health, Mitochondria, and the Battle of the Sexes. Biomedicines. 2021 Jan 26;9(2):116. doi: 10.3390/biomedicines9020116.
Source: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/33530498/

Daniels TE, Olsen EM, Tyrka AR. Stress and Psychiatric Disorders: The Role of Mitochondria. Annu Rev Clin Psychol. 2020 May 7;16:165-186. doi: 10.1146/annurev-clinpsy-082719-104030.
Source: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/32092280/

Dieter F, Esselun C, Eckert GP. Redox Active α-Lipoic Acid Differentially Improves Mitochondrial Dysfunction in a Cellular Model of Alzheimer and Its Control Cells. Int J Mol Sci. 2022 Aug 16;23(16):9186. doi: 10.3390/ijms23169186.
Source: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9409376/

Dos Santos SM, Romeiro CFR, Rodrigues CA, Cerqueira ARL, Monteiro MC. Mitochondrial Dysfunction and Alpha-Lipoic Acid: Beneficial or Harmful in Alzheimer's Disease? Oxid Med Cell Longev. 2019 Nov 30;2019:8409329. doi: 10.1155/2019/8409329.
Source: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6914903/

Forester BP, Harper DG, Georgakas J, Ravichandran C, Madurai N, Cohen BM. Antidepressant effects of open label treatment with coenzyme Q10 in geriatric bipolar depression. J Clin Psychopharmacol. 2015 Jun;35(3):338-40. doi: 10.1097/JCP.0000000000000326.
Source: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4414830/

Gao, Y., Kamogashira, T., Fujimoto, C. et al. Pyrroloquinoline quinone (PQQ) protects mitochondrial function of HEI-OC1 cells under premature senescence. npj Aging 8, 3 (2022). https://doi.org/10.1038/s41514-022-00083-0
Source: https://doi.org/10.1038/s41514-022-00083-0

Giménez-Palomo A, Dodd S, Anmella G, Carvalho AF, Scaini G, Quevedo J, Pacchiarotti I, Vieta E, Berk M. The Role of Mitochondria in Mood Disorders: From Physiology to Pathophysiology and to Treatment. Front Psychiatry. 2021 Jul 6;12:546801. doi: 10.3389/fpsyt.2021.546801.
Source: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/34295268/

Grossini E, De Marchi F, Venkatesan S, Mele A, Ferrante D, Mazzini L. Effects of Acetyl-L-Carnitine on Oxidative Stress in Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis Patients: Evaluation on Plasma Markers and Members of the Neurovascular Unit. Antioxidants (Basel). 2023 Oct 20;12(10):1887. doi: 10.3390/antiox12101887.
Source: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/37891966/

Hofer SJ, Liang Y, Zimmermann A, Schroeder S, Dengjel J, Kroemer G, Eisenberg T, Sigrist SJ, Madeo F. Spermidine-induced hypusination preserves mitochondrial and cognitive function during aging. Autophagy. 2021 Aug;17(8):2037-2039. doi: 10.1080/15548627.2021.1933299.
Source: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/34105442/

Inoue, R., Miura, M., Yanai, S. et al. Coenzyme Q10 supplementation improves the motor function of middle-aged mice by restoring the neuronal activity of the motor cortex. Sci Rep 13, 4323 (2023). https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-023-31510-1
Source: https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-023-31510-1

Jonscher KR, Chowanadisai W, Rucker RB. Pyrroloquinoline-Quinone Is More Than an Antioxidant: A Vitamin-like Accessory Factor Important in Health and Disease Prevention. Biomolecules. 2021 Sep 30;11(10):1441. doi: 10.3390/biom11101441.
Source: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/34680074/

Luo K, Yu JH, Quan Y, Shin YJ, Lee KE, Kim HL, Ko EJ, Chung BH, Lim SW, Yang CW. Therapeutic potential of coenzyme Q10 in mitochondrial dysfunction during tacrolimus-induced beta cell injury. Sci Rep. 2019 May 29;9(1):7995. doi: 10.1038/s41598-019-44475-x.
Source: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/31142763/

Pettegrew, J., Levine, J. & McClure, R. Acetyl-L-carnitine physical-chemical, metabolic, and therapeutic properties: relevance for its mode of action in Alzheimer's disease and geriatric depression. Mol Psychiatry 5, 616–632 (2000). https://doi.org/10.1038/sj.mp.4000805
Source: https://doi.org/10.1038/sj.mp.4000805

Rodick TC, Seibels DR, Babu JR, Huggins KW, Ren G, Mathews ST. Potential role of coenzyme Q10 in health and disease conditions. Nutrition and Dietary Supplements. 2018;10:1-11
https://doi.org/10.2147/NDS.S112119
Source: https://doi.org/10.2147/NDS.S112119

Traina G. The neurobiology of acetyl-L-carnitine. Front Biosci (Landmark Ed). 2016 Jun 1;21(7):1314-29. doi: 10.2741/4459.
Source: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/27100509/

Qiao N, Chen H, Du P, Kang Z, Pang C, Liu B, Zeng Q, Pan J, Zhang H, Mehmood K, Tang Z, Li Y. Acetyl-L-Carnitine Induces Autophagy to Promote Mouse Spermatogonia Cell Recovery after Heat Stress Damage. Biomed Res Int. 2021 Jan 18;2021:8871328. doi: 10.1155/2021/8871328.
Source: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7837762/
Andreux PA, van Diemen MPJ, Heezen MR, Auwerx J, Rinsch C, Groeneveld GJ, Singh A. Publisher Correction: Mitochondrial function is impaired in the skeletal muscle of pre-frail elderly. Sci Rep. 2019 Nov 25;9(1):17821. doi: 10.1038/s41598-019-54822-7.
Source: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/31767924/

Brierley EJ, Johnson MA, James OF, Turnbull DM. Effects of physical activity and age on mitochondrial function. QJM. 1996 Apr;89(4):251-8. doi: 10.1093/qjmed/89.4.251.
Source: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/8733511/

Ma W, Zhang R, Huang Z, Zhang Q, Xie X, Yang X, Zhang Q, Liu H, Ding F, Zhu J, Sun H. PQQ ameliorates skeletal muscle atrophy, mitophagy and fiber type transition induced by denervation via inhibition of the inflammatory signaling pathways. Ann Transl Med. 2019 Sep;7(18):440. doi: 10.21037/atm.2019.08.101.
Source: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/31700876/

Susanna Iossa, Maria Pina Mollica, Lillà Lionetti, Raffaella Crescenzo, Monica Botta, Antonio Barletta, Giovanna Liverini, Acetyl-L-Carnitine Supplementation Differently Influences Nutrient Partitioning, Serum Leptin Concentration and Skeletal Muscle Mitochondrial Respiration in Young and Old Rats, The Journal of Nutrition, Volume 132, Issue 4, 2002, Pages 636-642, ISSN 0022-3166, https://doi.org/10.1093/jn/132.4.636.
Source: https://doi.org/10.1093/jn/132.4.636

Yoshiaki Shiojima, Megumi Takahashi, Ryohei Takahashi, Hiroyoshi Moriyama, Manashi Bagchi, Isao Kanbayashi, Takuro Sasaki, Taketoshi Goda, Debasis Bagchi, Efficacy and safety of a novel dietary pyrroloquinoline quinone disodium salt on muscle strength and physical function in healthy volunteers: A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study,
Journal of Functional Foods, Volume 113, 2024, 106012, ISSN 1756-4646,
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jff.2024.106012.
Source: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jff.2024.106012
Liu L, Zhang Y, Liu T, et al. Pyrroloquinoline quinone protects against exercise-induced fatigue and oxidative damage via improving mitochondrial function in mice. The FASEB Journal. 2021; 35:e21394. https://doi.org/10.1096/fj.202001977RR
Source: https://doi.org/10.1096/fj.202001977RR

Malaguarnera M, Gargante MP, Cristaldi E, Colonna V, Messano M, Koverech A, Neri S, Vacante M, Cammalleri L, Motta M. Acetyl L-carnitine (ALC) treatment in elderly patients with fatigue. Arch Gerontol Geriatr. 2008 Mar-Apr;46(2):181-90. doi: 10.1016/j.archger.2007.03.012.
Source: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/17658628/

Saini R. Coenzyme Q10: The essential nutrient. J Pharm Bioallied Sci. 2011 Jul;3(3):466-7. doi: 10.4103/0975-7406.84471.
Source: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3178961/

Schirrmacher V. Mitochondria at Work: New Insights into Regulation and Dysregulation of Cellular Energy Supply and Metabolism. Biomedicines. 2020 Nov 22;8(11):526. doi: 10.3390/biomedicines8110526.
Source: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/33266387/
Frank Madeo et al. Spermidine in health and disease. Science359, eaan2788 (2018). DOI:10.1126/science.aan2788
Source: https://www.science.org/doi/full/10.1126/science.aan2788

Hatice Eser Faki, Bunyamin Tras, Kamil Uney, Alpha lipoic acid and vitamin E improve atorvastatin-induced mitochondrial dysfunctions in rats, Mitochondrion, Volume 52, 2020, Pages 83-88, ISSN 1567-7249, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.mito.2020.02.011.
Source: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.mito.2020.02.011

Kumar AA, Kelly DP, Chirinos JA. Mitochondrial Dysfunction in Heart Failure With Preserved Ejection Fraction. Circulation. 2019 Mar 12;139(11):1435-1450. doi: 10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.118.036259.
Source: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/30856000/

Mohammad Shafiq, Zahid Rasool Lone, Pragya Bharati, Satyapriya Mahapatra, Prashant Rai, Nilesh Khandelwal, Anil Nilkanth Gaikwad, Kumaravelu Jagavelu, Kashif Hanif, Pyrroloquinoline quinone (PQQ) improves pulmonary hypertension by regulating mitochondrial and metabolic functions, Pulmonary Pharmacology & Therapeutics, Volume 76, 2022, 102156, ISSN 1094-5539, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pupt.2022.102156.
Source: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pupt.2022.102156

Wang J, Li S, Wang J, Wu F, Chen Y, Zhang H, Guo Y, Lin Y, Li L, Yu X, Liu T, Zhao Y. Spermidine alleviates cardiac aging by improving mitochondrial biogenesis and function. Aging (Albany NY). 2020 Jan 6;12(1):650-671. doi: 10.18632/aging.102647.
Source: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/31907336/

Zhou B, Tian R. Mitochondrial dysfunction in pathophysiology of heart failure. J Clin Invest. 2018 Aug 31;128(9):3716-3726. doi: 10.1172/JCI120849.
Source: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/30124471/
Li J, Liu M, Liang S, Yu Y, Gu M. Repression of the Antioxidant Pyrroloquinoline Quinone in Skin Aging Induced by Bmi-1 Deficiency. Biomed Res Int. 2022 Feb 9;2022:1732438. doi: 10.1155/2022/1732438.
Source: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8849985/ 
Sreedhar A, Aguilera-Aguirre L, Singh KK. Mitochondria in skin health, aging, and disease. Cell Death Dis. 2020 Jun 9;11(6):444. doi: 10.1038/s41419-020-2649-z. 
Source: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/32518230/ 
Faas MM, de Vos P. Mitochondrial function in immune cells in health and disease. Biochim Biophys Acta Mol Basis Dis. 2020 Oct 1;1866(10):165845. doi: 10.1016/j.bbadis.2020.165845.
Source: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/32473386/

Jonscher KR, Chowanadisai W, Rucker RB. Pyrroloquinoline-Quinone Is More Than an Antioxidant: A Vitamin-like Accessory Factor Important in Health and Disease Prevention. Biomolecules. 2021 Sep 30;11(10):1441. doi: 10.3390/biom11101441.
Source: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/34680074/
Mollica MP, Iossa S, Soboll S, Liverini G. Acetyl-L-carnitine treatment stimulates oxygen consumption and biosynthetic function in perfused liver of young and old rats. Cell Mol Life Sci. 2001 Mar;58(3):477-84. doi: 10.1007/PL00000871.
Source: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/11315193/

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